Computer science is the science that studies methods and processes of collection, storage, processing, transmission, analysis and evaluation of information using computer technology, providing the possibility of its use for decision-making.
The term “computer science” was first mentioned by Louis Fein in 1959. Despite its name, computer science studies often don’t include the study of computer itself and things directly influencing it. For example, data science does not necessarily involve computer-based solutions, although mostly it does. Cryptography also is a part of computer science but originated long before the first computer was developed.
Computer science studies include disciplines related to the processing of information in computers and computer networks: both abstract, like the analysis of algorithms, and practical implications, such as the development of programming languages and data transfer protocols.
The topics of research in computer science are:
- What can and what can not be implemented in programs and databases (theory of computability and artificial intelligence)
- How to solve specific computing and information problems with maximum efficiency (theory of complexity of calculations)
- In what form should information of a specific type (structure and database) be stored and restored
- How should programs and people interact with each other (user interface and programming languages and knowledge representation), etc.
Sometimes, Pascal and Leibnitz are referred to as the first computer scientists due to their calculator developments. However, most commonly, computer science development is connected to the name of Charles Babbage. Charles Babbage is often considered to the father of computer science due to him being the first developer of mechanical computer. Ada Lovelace is also mentioned among the first computer scientists and as the first programmer in history.
Computer sciences became especially important after the introduction of the first personal computer - IBM PC. Since then, computer sciences made a huge leap forward and are currently placed among the post important and prospective fields of work. Computer science courses are very popular and can offer to provide good specialists in computer science with advanced career possibilities.
Computer science jobs are widely often created to solve real-life practical tasks, especially in high level problems. The implementation sphere depends on the particular field of computer science. For example, artificial intelligence is used in cognitive science, robotics, evolution modeling, data analysis and many other activities. The research in these field already provided a lot of progress in neurophysiology, social intelligence, electronics and so on.
Cryptography and computer architecture helps computer scientists to develop solutions in such fields as data security, data transfer and storage, operation system development, etc.. Computer graphics provided a strong technological help for physics, entertainment industry, math, robotic, geometry and other fields. Many of computer science solutions are used in management, brain research, DNA studies, biology, architecture, finance and many other fields.
Computer science education is considered to be one of the hardest. However, most universities offer its students computer science programs. At the end of 2018, most of computer science university rankings grade US programs as the best in the industry. Currently, the most of top-10 ranks include such universities as:
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
- Stanford University
- University of California, Berkeley
- University of Oxford
- Princeton University
- University of Cambridge
- Carnegie Mellon University
- National University of Singapore
Educational programs in computer science offer various requirements for its applicants. Mostly, however, upcoming students are required to provide a proof of some advanced mathematics knowledge and basic physics understanding. Degrees and courses taken in social studies, biology and other fields are considered to be beneficial for computer scientists, providing them with a larger possible research field.