DapCash is the first quantum resistant (or post-quantum) cryptocurrency based on 100% original code combining all the modern features of blockchain technologies. Post-quantum cryptocurrency differs from other existing cryptocurrencies in that it applies quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms.
DapCash is created to confront a quantum threat and to survive a Quantum Apocalypse.
A quantum threat is the ability to hack into the blockchain by using a quantum computer. The quantum computer due to super-fast computation processes will be able to fit private keys to encrypted blockchain transactions. As soon as the quantum computer with sufficient power is developed, it becomes possible to hack most of existing blockchains. This will be Quantum Apocalypse.
The essential DapCash feature is variable post-quantum algorithms intended to make DapCash quantum resistant and survive the Quantum Apocalypse. DapCash blockchain is multiple, scalable and has high bandwidth. All this makes DapCash a unique and future-oriented project.
DapCash key features
- DapCash blockchain is based on original C code optimized for high load. The basis for the technical implementation of the block is the DAP framework
- Multiple blockchains with different consensuses and tokens purposes. This is multiple blocking in which blocks are combined into different chains with different types of tokens. But the chains can contain each other’s transactions. Calculation of the wallet balance will be made immediately for all the tokens.
- CPU optimized mining (PoW). The complexity of forming each new block is adjusted on the basis of the total hash of capacities so that the generation of each new block takes the same time. For golden blocks, this time is extremely high - 10,000 sec. The golden block is confirmed by 10 inclusions in the silver block plus 3 inclusions in the golden one. Mining of both blocks goes simultaneously, with the calculation of the probability of that for each 100 silver blocks there will be one golden.
- Ability to change cryptography “on the fly”. DapCash will implement up to 65536 algorithms when other cryptocurrencies select only a single algorithm to rely on. Users will be able to choose the type of signature – multiple or ring, etc.
- Fast anonymous transactions with post-quantum zero-knowledge ring signature. The post-quantum annotation Picnic – an algorithm also based on a zero-knowledge confirmation - will be integrated into the DapCash blockchain.
- Sharding technology breaks the whole blockchain into specific shards: the “shard chains”. These chains of shards are made in such a way that the entire account information is present within a single shard chain. The shard can be limited with size, for example, 1Gb. So, users don't need to store all the blockchain - all the user's transactions are recorded in the part of blockchain - the shard.
Load testing of DAP platform
Initial testing conditions
During testing, wthe team evaluated the speed of the basic protocols, measured the number of transactions per second (TPS). Testing was organized as follows. In order to simulate for testing an environment close to real processes of block interchange in the network, we ran network packet interchange within a virtual private network (VPN). This was necessary for the following purposes:
- to estimate all the side needs for memory operations and network operations;
- to determine the average processing time of one packet, which will help us estimate the upper limit of theoretically possible TPS.
Results and forecasts, evaluation of transactions speed
On the virtual and real processors, as well as on virtual and real networks, DapCash team got approximately similar results for processing one network packet – 0.01-0.02 milliseconds. The number of network packets processed by one processor core was 83 262.87.
If a higher-quality processor is given, for example, Xenon, a packet processing speed of two and a half times higher can be expected - about 200,000 network packets per core. Thus, to copy data back and forth at a speed of 1 000 000 packets per second, only 5 cores of the higher-quality Xenon processor are needed. There are 24 cores in the Xenon processor. With this in mind, the team can conclude that processes in the network and memory are not a bottleneck of DAP blockchain. So, there are only one tick needed for processes in the memory and network, and 4-5 ticks to process the data.
Simply put, blockchain administration and maintenance of its basic functionality will take approximately ⅕ – ⅙ of the total system performance. The rest of the system performance will be used to process a variety of data within transactions: payments, messages, audio and video streams etc.
5 Ghz Xenon processor core can perform approximately 5 billion ticks per second. Accordingly, 20 “extra” cores give 100 billion ticks per second.
To perform a single arithmetic operation, 3 – 4 ticks, on average, are required (from several operations per a tick up to 20 ticks per operation). Let’s take conservative rate – 10 ticks per operation. To make a transaction such as checking the kilobyte public key or counting the hash function of the header, etc., 10,000 operations should be enough. 10,000 operations are 100,000 ticks to process a single transaction. Divide 100 billion ticks by 100,000 ticks and get 10 million transactions per second.
See in numbers
- 1 operation = 10 ticks
- 1 transaction = 10,000 operations = 100,000 ticks
- 100,000,000,000 ticks (20 Xenon cores) : 100,000 (per single transaction) = 1,000,000 TPS
Thus, the team estimates the TPS limit of the completed system approximately 1 – 10 million transactions per second.
- Convenient means of payment. Thanks to the multiple blockchain and shard mechanism, transactions in the DapCash network will be very fast and cheap. Our coins will be convenient for all kinds of daily payments.
- Robust and secure storage. The wallet will remain safe in the future due to blockchain flexibility and ability to adapt to any cryptography innovations. You can use the wallet as a classical currency storage - lock it up with 3 – 4 different key types and easily forget about them for years. Don't worry - they will be safe.
- One wallet for different tokens.With DapCash popularity growth, we’ll have more and more different coins and tokens that all will be processed in one wallet.
- The highest level of anonymity.Thanks to post-quantum zero-knowledge ring signature, your transaction will never be hacked even by quantum computer.
- Suitable for both ERC20 tokens and non-ERC20 ones. Both EVM for ERC20 tokens and own DVM virtual machine for non-ERC20 tokens will be designed.
- Unique opportunity to run your own Post-Quantum blockchain project.DAP blockchain will be the best platform for people who wish to run a project based on Post-Quantum blockchain, or run CryptoNote coins and other non- ERC20 tokens.
- The use of quantum-resistant encryption algorithms in protocols at the first level of data exchange. Even a super-powerful quantum computer will not be able to access encryption of this level.
- Application of onion routing with garlic data packaging. Data packets will be put in a united stream and protected with at least two layers of encryption (three layers of protection in total).
- Additional features for "obfuscation" of traffic: throwing back and forth someone else's traffic, mixing with fictitious traffic, the use of ring signatures. And all these in order to ensure the highest level of data transmission security.
DapCash have 3 type of coins. It isn’t just for fun. It is necessary because of mining and different purposes of subchains. Because of security reasons and because of flexible transaction throughput.
- Golden coin (DAPG). A rare token with one block per 10 000 secs generation, classic PoW. DAPG will be used for establishing consensus between shards inside other blockchains that have shards. Golden coin is rarer and little more protected from so-called 51% attack. Also DAPG is the topmost blockchain for the rest subchains (Silver and Bronze).
- Silver coin (DAPS). A general token with unlimited block size, one block per 100 secs generation, hierarchical PoW with sharded blockchain. Silver appears when you mine golden tokens, this processes are merged in so-called Electrum mining. This means that for each 1 golden coin 100 silver coins present.
- Bronze coin (DAPB). A payment token. Users can buy a cup of coffee or make payments for DapVPN, DPoS etc.