From address

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Bitcoin addresses are used to receive payments, but not to send them: there is no concept of a "from" address in Bitcoin.

A common exchange on Bitcoin forums goes like this:

  • X: How do I see the address that a transaction came from?
    • or: Why does my wallet software not tell me where transactions came from?
  • Y: (You can’t,) because there is no ‘from’ address.
  • X: What the hell do you mean? My transaction came from somewhere!

This is an attempt to explain readably but fairly completely in one easily linkable place.

It depends what your definition of ‘from’ is[edit]

OK, so before you had these coins, someone else had them — let’s say your friend Monica paid you back her share of your restaurant bill right there in the restaurant. The reason for avoiding the word ‘from’ is that in common English usage it’s tempting to assume that if something came from somewhere, and you need to return it or correspond later about something else, that’s where you should return it to/reply to. In the case of Bitcoin transactions (and actually often in the real world) this is an unreliable assumption; it confuses the who with the where/how. The distinction isn’t just pedantry; people (especially Satoshi Dice customers) have made this mistake and have lost money, so it’s primarily an effort to minimise such losses in future.

I suspect the following factors have contributed to the popularity of the “from” misconception:

  1. We often learn by comparing new phenomena to those we’re already familiar with, and in most other payment systems and sender/recipient models the sender has a single permanent identifier.
  2. Most blockchain explorers attempt to show all last-sent-to addresses for a transaction in an effort to be user-friendly, and either show a suggestive arrow or even (in the case of actually label the last-sent-to as “From”. All those I checked represent addresses as having a “balance” which tempts people to think addresses operate like bank accounts.
  3. The depiction or use of addresses in some local wallets somewhat encourages it:
  4. Vanity address use can easily be interpreted as meaning there’s a one-to-one relationship between people and addresses.

. Here’s one way to depict that for a transaction like e9e2....5063:


None of the <code>prev_outs</code> in the decoded version directly encode addresses in any form. It does encode indirect references to unspent coins, and maybe for some unspent coins you can infer something about their previous destination, but conceptually those are at best references to previous “to” addresses. Even that inference is not always sensible (advanced transactions will probably defeat most block explorers) and is never necessary or appropriate in everyday use of Bitcoin. The rest of this post will use the term “last-sent-to address”.

(shared wallets) manage addresses and private keys for you, and pool all deposited coins.

After you deposit coins to such a site they will almost always use coins you deposited to fulfill other customers’ withdrawals, maintaining your balance only as a centralised database entry. Similarly, when you go to withdraw coins to an external address, your withdrawal will probably consist entirely of coins last-sent-to some other customer’s deposit address and/or addresses used purely internally by the site to receive change.

FIXME: diagram of typical shared wallet coin-pooling, picturing your freshly deposited coins being used satisfy another customer’s withdrawal, then someone else’s coins being used to satisfy yours.

In that case, the address Monica’s coins were last-sent-to might just be the deposit address of a completely unrelated user of the same shared wallet Monica uses, or at best, a change address used purely internally by the shared wallet, not associated with any particular user. Either way, Monica would be unlikely ever to recover what you sent.

This wouldn’t be a problem if the last-sent-to address was created with a local wallet such as Bitcoin QT, Electrum or Multibit — but you can’t safely assume that, and even if you know Monica used a local wallet recently she may have changed her habits when creating that address, or switched wallets since.

This doesn’t mean shared wallets are misbehaving by pooling deposits; it’s necessary for keeping most coins in cold storage. The model has other benefits too; they can make more efficient use of block space (and reduce fees as a result) by grouping withdrawals and by handling transfers between customers internally, and provided they protect/expire their logs, they increase privacy.

, her transaction to you may have consumed multiple inputs. How are you going to distribute your repayment between those? Equally? Pick one at random? Existing use of CoinJoin probably involves people participating in a join between external transactions, as a separate privacy enhancement step, but as more implementations appear perhaps clients will support direct payments via CoinJoins. That would be a similar situation to the shared wallets point above.


Recipient can work out the origin reliably[edit]

This is more about respecting a payee’s preferred payment method and making life easy for them than about avoiding loss. To ease accounting (and other reasons) Monica might always create a dedicated address for every receive, and label it with the name of the expected sender and purpose of the transaction. If you send to an address Monica gave out to her employer, her accounts won’t balance. Assuming her employer and you both follow best practices regarding privacy/address re-use, she can’t tell anything about the mystery incoming funds with any certainty.

In some business (and perhaps tax return) situations having an inexplicable imbalance on an account can be a serious compliance problem; while folks in that situation could delete all related keys to prevent that, you can’t be sure they have and even if they did, you’re destroying coins.

Recipient is comfortable with the security implications of address re-use[edit]

Established security best practices discourage address re-use because when Monica sends you the restaurant bill, she reveals the public key for the last-sent-to address; before that, the world knew only the address (a hash of the public key) and would have had to perform a pre-image attack to find the public key. While it’s pretty unlikely, ECDSA is relatively new and could be found to be weak; private keys may somehow be found to be easily derived from public ones, exposing any unspent coins where the public key is known.

Re-using addresses also probably increased the losses suffered via the Android SecureRandom bug, since exploiting it required seeing two transactions with the same last-sent-to and the same r values.

The discoverers of the OpenSSL ECDSA “FLUSH+RELOAD” attack estimated that under the right conditions they could recover a private key by observing as few as 200 signatures (in Bitcoin’s case, typical transactions) made with it.

Hopefully those are the last bugs we’ll see related to re-use, but we can’t be sure.

Since it’s Monica’s money at stake here, the decision on whether these threats are significant should be up to her.

Recipient is comfortable with the privacy implications of address re-use[edit]

Established privacy best practices discourage address re-use because it reduces privacy both for you and, infectiously, for all other users (most directly, people you transact with, but also to a lesser extent the people they transact with, and so on). Even if you feel the simpler key management is worth the privacy cost to you and the rest of the network, it’s more polite to avoid inflicting that cost on Monica any more than you already are — again, you should let her make her own decision on this.


Perhaps we’re doomed, and Bitcoin will never see mass adoption because of traps like these that await the unwary. On the other hand, things can be done.

If you’re telling someone about Bitcoin you should avoid mentioning the concept, except to explain how, in this respect, Bitcoin doesn’t operate like other payment systems or sender/receiver systems they might know.

Tools like block explorers and wallets should either refrain from showing inferences altogether, or should show them only in an advanced mode — with the right name and a prominent list of reasons why they’re of academic interest only. Perhaps if folks make enough noise, they will.

Uptake of the payment protocol and other such measures that deliver refund addresses in the same communication as payment requests/payments should be encouraged. These hide such dirty temptations from the user.

Privacy-protecting wallets should be preferred, since those avoid address re-use anyway.


2014-05-30: incorporate feedback from Andrew Poelstra and Burrito. 2014-05-31: incorporate feedback from Greg Maxwell, btiefert, dsnrk. 2014-06-01: incorporate feedback from Luke-Jr.

Original source:


See Also on BitcoinWiki[edit]