PIVX (Private Instant Verified Transaction, formerly known as DNET) is an open source peer-to-peer cryptocurrency, which originated as a code fork from DASH, one of the first privacy-focused cryptocurrencies. PIVX is a digital currency guided by a manifesto. It is a community-centric cryptocurrency with a focus on privacy, decentralization, and real-world use. PIVX operates a self-governing and self-funding budget model that enables the network to pay individuals and businesses to perform work that adds value to the network. A DAO (decentralized autonomous organization) budget system is not reliant on donations or sponsorships that can lead to conflicts of interest. Currently, PIVX offers instant transactions (SwiftX), and private transactions (zPIV).
PIVX was originally released as DarkNet (DNET) on January 30, 2015. On January 1, 2017, DarkNet was rebranded as PIVX, an acronym for Private, Instant, Verified, Transaction.
PIVX coin has a completely customized codebase of Bitcoin core 0.10.x and DASH, which is maintained by six full-time core developers, including an academic/professional cryptographer and additional support from many part-time and volunteer workers.
PIVX utilizes a network of “masternodes” that provide a number of vital network functions. Masternodes require 10,000 PIVX as collateral to prevent sybil attacks. Although this collateral can be spent at any time, doing so removes the associated masternode from the network. The reward for each block is split between stakers and masternodes.
PIVX has a balanced ecosystem because 60% of coins are staked or locked in masternodes, and coin holders only suffer a small rate of inflation, which continuously decreases as the coin supply increases, since only a fixed amount of 2.34–2.6 million PIV can be minted per year. PIVX features IPv4, IPv6, Tor Network Nodes and I2P support is in development.
Proof of stake (PoS) is a type of protocol that is used to verify transactions using a fraction of the electricity used in proof of work (PoW). Furthermore, PoS is used to create PIVX that is distributed to stakers as a reward for validating transactions. PIVX utilizes the PoS 3.0 protocol with a fixed block rewards, in addition to a variable seesaw reward mechanism that dynamically balances 90% of its block reward size between masternodes and staking nodes. The remaining 10% of the block reward is used for the budgeting system, which utilizes its network of masternodes for decentralized governance. There is not a significant difference between staking and masternode rewards.
Every PIVX transaction must be double-validated by a random staker and masternode, and then confirmed 101 consecutive times by random contributors. An attacker would need to own 70.7% of staked coins for a 50% chance of double spending or invalidating a single block. PIVX coin staking can be decentralized amongst all of its users and cannot be traced by electricity use, whereas mining is usually centralized by mining pools, concentrated in regions where electricity is cheap.
PIVX coin is the first PoS-based cryptocurrency to enable transaction anonymity, as of September 2017. PIVX has implemented a highly-vetted protocol called Zerocoin, which enables each transaction to be private by unlinking transactions with the use of a new second-tier coin called zPIV. Where PIV is a unit of PIVX and z prefix is for Zerocoin.
Researchers at Stanford University and Concordia University have shown that bitcoin exchanges and other entities can prove assets, liabilities, and solvency without revealing their addresses using zero-knowledge proofs.
Unlike most other cryptocurrencies that currently utilize a Zerocoin-based protocol, zPIV utilizes a very efficient accumulator checkpoint system. This system allows the zPIV spend process to utilize checkpoints that contains all mints that were made prior to the zPIV mint being spent, as well as a user-selected amount of zPIV mints beyond the checkpoint. This allows for a large pool of coins in the accumulator and much smaller computational requirements. zPIV requires minimal resources, which make it one of the fastest private transfers in the market of digital currencies.
zPIV TECHNICAL ADVANTAGES
1. 25% smaller spend transaction sizes (on average) over any other current implementation of the Zerocoin protocol in a production environment (further optimization is in the works).
2. Fast verification and network sync performance.
3. Direct spend of zPIV to a PIVX address.
4. Multiple Zerocoin denomination spends is possible in a single transaction.
5. Ability to spend exact amounts and issue the remaining change to either a PIVX address or more zPiv.
PIVX coin uses SwiftX technology to achieve near instant transaction confirmations (less than a second), while still overcoming double spend challenges. SwiftX technology allows PIVX coin transactions to be broadcast almost instantly; PIVX SwiftX costs 0.01 PIV, and will give 5 confirmations in under 1 second. This feature has not yet been adopted by the wider cryptocurrency community.
INFINITE SUPPLY ∞
PIVX has a low inflation rate, which decreases every year. There is a current coin supply of ~55 million PIV and there is a limit of 2.34–2.6 million PIV that can be minted each year. At least 90% of minted coins are rewarded to stakers and masternode owners for processing transactions and securing the network. Up to 10% of minted coins are used to fund PIVX improvement proposals. Since PIVX holders can stake regardless of how much PIV they own, and staking and masternode rewards are not significantly different, all PIVX users can contribute to the network to earn block rewards, thereby mitigating any reduction in buying power due to inflation. PIVX deploys an aggressive deflationary tactic which coins are burnt (PoB) from the total coin supply, such as the unused treasury, all transaction fees and zPIV minting fees.
PIVX currently has a transaction capacity that is 10 times greater than Bitcoin. With the upcoming Elastic Block Sizes update the transaction capacity would expand based on demand. Block size of 2 megabyte and block time of 60 seconds.
GOVERNANCE AND FUNDING
PIVX coin has a fully operational, self-funding, decentralized treasury system that was built and developed using 100% self-funding, without any ICO. On occasion, a few web projects have accepted PIVX for their ICO.
Up to 10% of the block rewards are available to fund projects and proposals, amounting to around 21.6k PIV that are available every 30 days to be used and distributed through PIVX’s proposal and voting system, which is done in a decentralized manner through masternodes. Currently, there is a plan for a Community Designed Governance (CDG) system, which will be a first in cryptocurrencies. Plans for CDG are listed on the development roadmap and will roll out in late 2018.
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