Satoshi Client Node Connectivity
The Satoshi bitcoin client creates a thread to manage making connections to other nodes. The code for that thread is in a function called ThreadOpenConnections2 in net.cpp.
The client also handles accepting new inbound connections and disconnecting nodes when appropriate in a a thread called ThreadSocketHandler2, which is also in net.cpp.
The thread making connections does not discover the addresses of other nodes. That information is gathered in various ways (See the article on Node Discovery). The connection thread chooses among the available addresses and makes connections and disconnects nodes when appropriate. That is all it does.
Node addresses are chosen based on the following set of rules.
Outbound Static Addresses
If the user specified addresses with -connect, the node uses those addresses only. It tries to establish a connection to each node and then sleeps for a half second, and then repeats that in a loop until shut down. The code establishes a connection by calling OpenNetworkConnection(addr). If the connection is already open, OpenNetworkConnection just returns.
If the user specified addresses with -node, then connections are made to those nodes (with a half second delay between each) upon startup. After those connections are attempted, the code proceeds to the regular connection handling code.
The connection handling code is one loop that performs various functions until shutdown. The first thing the loop does is count the number of outbound connections, and if the maximum has been reached (8 or -maxconnections), then it goes into a 2 second delay loop until the count is below the max.
Assuming the number of connections is below the limit, the node attempts to connect to another node. See the next section.
If the node has not been able to learn about other addresses, presumably because those methods have failed, the node will use an internal list of 320 node addresses hard coded into the software to populate the list of known node addresses.
There is code to move away from seed nodes when possible. The presumption is that this is to avoid overloading seed nodes. Once the local node has enough addresses (presumably learned from the seed nodes), the connection thread will close seed node connections.
Outbound Random Selection
First the code puts the addresses into a.b.c.* buckets so only one connection is made to each 24 bit netmasked network.
Next, it loops through every address and determines whether it is "ready", and then, using a complex calculation, computes a score for every address. The address with the highest score wins and OpenNetworkConnection is called for it. Then the code completes the main loop of the thread and continues.
In order to determine readiness, the code hashes the IP and other entropy into a deterministic random number between 1 and 3600. If the address specifies a nonstandard port, a 2 hour (7200) penalty is added to the number. This is an adjustment number to the retry interval.
The main retry interval is basically the square root of the last time seen plus the "random" adjustment from the previous paragraph. If the node has been seen in the last hour, however, the retry interval is set to ten minutes. The following table is in the code:
// Last seen Base retry frequency // <1 hour 10 min // 1 hour 1 hour // 4 hours 2 hours // 24 hours 5 hours // 48 hours 7 hours // 7 days 13 hours // 30 days 27 hours // 90 days 46 hours // 365 days 93 hours
After computing the interval, if the address has already been contacted in the interval, the address is skipped.
If the address is over a day old, we may skip it. If we are successfully getting IRC addresses, and have node connections, then we skip it with the assumption that we will see the address advertisement if it is really active.
Finally, for all addresses that appear to be ready for a retry, the address that has not been contacted the longest is chosen with a maximum of 24 hours. However, there is a twist. The calculation for the score is this:
int64 nScore = min(nSinceLastTry, (int64)24 * 60 * 60) - nSinceLastSeen - nRandomizer;
So, the address is penalized for every second since it is last seen (and a random adjustment).
Inbound Accepting and Disconnecting
The client handles accepting new inbound connections and disconnecting nodes when appropriate in a a thread called ThreadSocketHandler2, which is in net.cpp.
The socket thread is simply a loop which disconnects sockets that have the fDisconnect flag set on them (and have empty buffers), prepares all sockets for "select" and calls "select". "select" is a system call which waits for activity on a set of sockets. When that call returns, the node accepts any new connections, receives and sends on any ready sockets, and marks any inactive sockets for disconnect with the fDisconnect flag.
Sockets are disconnected if they are 60 seconds old and have not sent or received data.
Sockets are disconnected if they have not sent or received data in the last 90 minutes.
Sockets are disconnected if the current inbound data exceeds a buffer limit. (Search for: if (nPos > ReceiveBufferSize()) in net.cpp)
Sockets are disconnected if the current outbound data exceeds a buffer limit. (Search for: if (vSend.size() > SendBufferSize()) in net.cpp)